3 minutes

Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) detail the characteristics and energy efficiency of residential buildings THESE are valid for 10 years or until a newer EPC is produced. Almost 40% of the UK’s energy consumption and carbon emissions come from the way buildings are heated and used. Even comparatively small changes in energy performance and the way a building is used will have a significant effect in reducing overall energy consumption.

The requirement for energy certificates for buildings flows from the EU Directive on the energy performance of buildings. The principle underlying the requirements of the EU Directive on the energy performance of buildings is to make the energy efficiency of buildings transparent through the provision of energy certificates and to show how the energy efficiency of the building can be improved.

Regulatory context

The requirement for domestic and non-domestic (commercial) EPCs and DECs (Display Energy Certificates) was introduced in stages from 2007. Apart from a few exempted buildings, a building must have an EPC when constructed, sold or let. Larger buildings occupied by a public authority and frequently visited by the public must have an energy certificate (referred to as a Display Energy Certificate (DEC) in England and Wales).

The requirement for buildings over 1,000 square meters occupied by public authorities and frequently visited by the public to have a DEC came into effect on 1 October 2008. This size threshold was lowered to buildings over 500 square meters on 9 January 2013. In July 2015 the floor area size threshold was lowered to include buildings over 250 square meters.

EPCs for domestic and commercial buildings are valid for 10 years or until a newer EPC is produced for a building. DECs for buildings over 1,000 square meters are valid for one year. DECs of buildings of 1,000 square meters or less are valid for 10 years.


The data is drawn from EPCs issued for domestic and commercial buildings constructed, sold or let since 2008. Data from DECs issued for buildings occupied by public authorities also dates back to 2008. It provides information on the energy efficiency ratings of domestic and commercial buildings during the energy assessment process. This data release includes data for buildings with multiple EPCs or DECs as well as for buildings where only a single energy certificate has been issued. The registers do not hold data for every domestic and commercial building or every building occupied by public authorities in England and Wales. This data should, therefore, not be interpreted as a true representation of the whole of the building stock in England and Wales.

Technical notes about the data

Originally, for domestic buildings accredited energy assessors had the option of lodging the underlying data used to produce the energy certificate in addition to the PDF document of the final energy certificate itself. After September 2008, lodging the data became a mandatory requirement. For commercial buildings, the lodgement of data has always been a mandatory requirement.

Data will be redacted where:

  • the holder of the energy certificate has ‘opted-out’ of disclosure
  • energy certificates are excluded on grounds of national security
  • energy certificates are marked as ‘cancelled’ or ‘not for issue’
  • DECs that can be identified as ‘voluntary’ (some organisations choose to have a DEC produced even though they are not required to do so by the regulations) are also excluded

The addresses associated with the EPCs are joined to the Core Address File on address id as part of DoordaProperty. The Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government is responsible for the enforcement of the legislation and collection of the data.